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Vitamin C: The real story (Steve Hickey, Andrew W. Saul)

Steve Hickey has a B.A. (math and science) from the Open University, membership of the Institute of Biology by examination in pharmacology, and is a chartered biologist and a former member of the British Computer Society. He did research into ultra-high-resolution computerized tomography (CT) body scanning, leading the physics team in Europe's first clinical magnetic resonance (MR) imaging unit at Manchester Medical School. He has over 100 scientific publications, covering a variety of disci-plines. Currently, he is a member of the biology department of Staffordshire Univer-sity.

Andrew W. Saul has over 30 years of experience in natural health education. He taught nutrition, health science, and cell biology at the college level for nine years. He is chairman of the Independent Vitamin Safety Review Panel, editor of the Or-thomolecular Medicine News Service, and assistant editor of the Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine. He is the author of Doctor Yourself and Fire Your Doctor! (both available from Basic Health Publications). His popular peer-reviewed, non-commercial natural healing website is www.DoctorYourself.com.

Kapitel: Die Pioniere der Vitamin C Forschung:

1. Cott, A. "Irwin Stone: A Tribute." Orthomolecular Psych 14 (2nd Quarter 1985): 150.
2. Stone, I. "On the Genetic Etiology of Scurvy." Acta Genet Med Gemellol 15 (1966): 345-350.
3. Stone, I. "The Genetic Disease, Hypoascorbemia: A Fresh Approach to an Ancient Disease and Some of Its Medical Implications." Acta Genet Med Gemellol 16:1 (1967): 52-62. Stone, I. "Humans, the Mammalian Mutants." Am Lab 6:4 (1974): 32-39.
4. Stone, I. "Eight Decades of Scurvy: The Case History of a Misleading Dietary Hy-pothesis." Orthomolecular Psych 8:2 (1979): 58-62.
5. Stone, I. "Sudden Death. A Look Back from Ascorbate's 50th Anniversary." Aus-tralas Nurses j 8:9 (1979): 9-13, 39.
6. Kalokerinos, A. Every Second Child. Melbourne, Australia: Thomas Nelson (Aus-tralia) Ltd., 1974.
7. Stone, 1. °Hypoascorbemia, Our Most Widespread Disease." Natl Health Fed Bull 18:10 (1972): 6-9.
8. Stone, 1. "The Natural History of Ascorbic Acid in the Evolution of the Mammals and Primates and Its Significance for Present Day Man." J Orthomolecular Psych 1:2-3 (1972): 82-89.
9. Stone, I. "Megadoses of Vitamin C." Nutr Today 10:3 (1975): 35.
10. Rimland, B. "In Memoriam: Irwin Stone 1907-1984." J Orthomolecular Psych 13:4 (1984): 285.
11. Hoffer, A. "The Vitamin Paradigm Wars." Townsend Letter for Doctors and Pa-tients 155 (1996): 56-60. Available online at: http://www.doctoryour self.com/hoffer-paradigm.html.
12. Stone, I. "Hypoascorbemia: The Genetic Disease Causing the Human Require-ment for Exogenous Ascorbic Acid." Perspect Biol Med 10 (1966): 133-134
13. Nathens, A.B., M.J. Neff, G.J. Jurkovich, et al. "Randomized, Prospective Trial of Antioxidant Supplementation in Critically III Surgical Patients." Ann Surg 236:6 (2002): 814-822.
14. Stone, I. "Fifty Years of Research on Ascorbate and the Genetics of Scurvy." Or-thomolecular Psych 13:4 (1984): 280.
15. Related to Andrew Saul. Doctor Yourself Newsletter 4:23 (November 2004).
16. Stone, I. "Letter to Albert Szent-Gyorgyi." National Foundation for Cancer Re-search, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, August 30, 1982.
17. Stone, 1. "Cancer Therapy in the Light of the Natural History of Ascorbic Acid." J Intl Acad Metabol 3:1 (1974): 56-61. Stone, I. "The Genetics of Scurvy and the Cancer Problem." J Orthomolecular Psych 5:3 (1976): 183-190. Stone, 1. "The Possible Role of Mega-ascorbate in the Endogenous Synthesis of Interferon." Med Hypothe-ses 6:3 (March 1980): 309-314. Stone, I. "Inexpensive Interferon Therapy of Cancer and the Viral Diseases Now." Australas Nurses j 10:3 (March 1981): 25-28.
18. Cathcart, R.F. "Vitamin C, Titration to Bowel Tolerance, Anascorbemia, and Acute Induced Scurvy." Med Hypothesis 7 (1981): 1359-1376. Available online at: http://www.doctoryour self.com/titration.html.
19. Levine, M., C. Conry-Cantilena, Y. Wang, et al. "Vitamin C Pharmacokinetics in Healthy Volunteers: Evidence for a Recommended Dietary Allowance." Proc Nat! Acad Sci USA 93 (1996): 3704-3709. Levine, M., Y. Wang, S.J. Padayatty, et al. (2001) "A New Recommended Dietary Allowance of Vitamin C for Healthy Young Women." Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:17 (2001): 9842-9846.
20. Hickey, S., and H. Roberts. Ridiculous Dietary Allowance. Lulu Press, 2004.
21. Smith, L. Vitamin C as a Fundamental Medicine. (Re-titled Clinical Guide to the Use of Vitamin C: The Clinical Experiences of Frederick R. Klenner M.D.) Tacoma, WA: Life Sciences Press, 1991.
22. Levy, T.E. Vitamin C, Infectious Diseases, and Toxins: Curing the Incurable. Xli-bris, 2002.
23. Miller, F. "Dr. Klenner Urges Taking Vitamins in Huge Doses." Greensboro Daily News (December 13, 1977): A8-A10.
24. Kalokerinos, A. Every Second Child. Melbourne, Australia: Thomas Nelson, 1974.
25. Pauling, L. In Stone, I. Vitamin C as a Fundamental Medicine: Abstracts of Dr. Frederick R. Klenner, M.D.'s Published and Unpublished Work. (Re-titled Clinical Guide to the Use of Vitamin C: The Clinical Experiences of Frederick R. Klenner M.D.) Tacoma, WA: Life Sciences Press, 1991.
26. Smith, L. Feed Yourself Right. New York, NY: Dell, 1983.
27. Smith, Lendon H., and Joseph G. Hattersley. "Victory Over Crib Death." (June 2000.) Mercola.com. Available online at: http://www.mercola.com/2000/ nov/5/victory_over_sids.htm.
28. Lendon Smith's former website: www.Smithsez.com.
29. "Vaccine-derived Polioviruses-Update." Wkly Epidemiol Record 81:42 (2006): 398-404. Tebbens, R.J., M.A. Pallansch, O.M. Kew, et al. "Risks of Paralytic Disease Due to Wild or Vaccine-derived Poliovirus after Eradication." Risk Anal 26:6 (2006): 1471-1505. Jenkins, P.C., and J.F. Modlin. "Decision Analysis in Planning for a Po-lio Outbreak in the United States." Pediatrics 118:2 (2006): 611-618. Friedrich, F. "Molecular Evolution of Oral Poliovirus Vaccine Strains during Multiplication in Hu-mans and Possible Implications for Global Eradication of Poliovirus." Acta Virol 44:2 (2000): 109-117.
30. Miller, N.Z.. "Vaccines and Natural Health." Mothering (Spring 1994): 44-54.
31. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. "Notice to Readers: Recom-mended Childhood Immunization Schedule-United States." MM WR Weekly Rep 49:2 (January 2000): 35-38.
32. Jungeblut, C.W. "Inactivation of Poliomyelitis Virus by Crystalline Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)." J Exp Med 62 (1935): 317-321.
33. Jungeblut, C.W., and R.L. Zwemer. "Inactivation of Diphtheria Toxin in Vivo and in Vitro by Crystalline Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)." Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 32 (1935): 1229-1234. jungeblut, C.W. "Inactivation of Tetanus Toxin by Crystalline Vitamin C (I.-Ascorbic Acid)." J Immunol 33 (1937): 203-214.
34. Ely, J.T.A. "A Unity of Science, Especially among Physicists, is Urgently Needed to End Medicine's Lethal Misdirection." ArXiv.org, Cornell University Library (March 2004). Available online at: http://arxive.org/abs/physics/0403023.
35. "Polio Clues." Time Magazine (September 18, 1939).
36. Klenner, F.R. "The Use of Vitamin C as an Antibiotic." J Appl Nutr 6 (1953): 274-278.
37. Hickey, S., and H. Roberts. Ascorbate: The Science of Vitamin C. Lulu Press, 2004.
38. Stone, I. "Viral Infection." The Healing Factor, Chapter 13. New York, NY: Grosset and Dunlap, 1972.
39. Landwehr, R. "The Origin of the 42-Year Stonewall of Vitamin C." J Orthomolec-ular Med 6:2 (1991): 99-103.
40. Klenner, F.R. "The Treatment of Poliomyelitis and Other Virus Diseases with Vit-amin C." Southern Med Surg (July 1949): 209.
41. Chan, D., S.R. Lamande, W.G. Cole, et al. "Regulation of Procollagen Synthesis and Processing during Ascorhate-induced Extracellular Matrix Accumulation in Vitro." Biochem j 269:1 (1990): 175-181. Franceschi, R.T., B.S. Iyer, Y. Cui. "Effects of Ascorbic Acid on Collagen Matrix Formation and Osteoblast Differentiation in Mu-rine MC3T3-E1 Cells." J Bone Miner Res 9:6 (1994): 843-854.
42. McCormick, W.J. "The Striae of Pregnancy: A New Etiological Concept." Med Record (August 1948).
43. Stone, 1. "The Genetic Disease, Hypoascorbemia: A Fresh Approach to an An-cient Disease and Some of Its Medical Implications." Acta Genet Med Gemellol 16:1 (1967): 52-60.
44. McCormick, W.J. "Have We Forgotten the Lesson of Scurvy?" J App! Nutr 15:1-2 (1962): 4-12.
45. McCormick, W.J. "Cancer: The Preconditioning Factor in Pathogenesis." Arch Pediatr NY 71 (1954): 313. McCormick, W.J. "Cancer: A Collagen Disease, Second-ary to a Nutritional Deficiency?" Arch Pediatr 76 (1959): 166.
46. Pincus, F. "Acute Lymphatic Leukaemia." In Nothnagel's Encyclopedia of Practi-cal Medicine, American Ed. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders, 1905, pp. 552-574.
47. Gonzalez, M.J., J.R. Miranda-Massari, E.M. Mora, et al. "Orthomolecular Oncolo-gy: A Mechanistic View of Intravenous Ascorbate's Chemotherapeutic Activity." P R Health Sci J 21:1 (March 2002): 39-41. Hickey, S., and H. Roberts. Cancer: Nutrition and Survival. Lulu Press, 2005.
48. McCormick, W.J. "Coronary Thrombosis: A New Concept of Mechanism and Eti-ology." Clin Med 4:7 (July 1957).
49. Scannapieco, EA., and R.J. Genco. "Association of Periodontal Infections with Atherosclerotic and Pulmonary Diseases." J Periodontal Res 34:7 (1999): 340-345.
50. Paterson, J.C. "Some Factors in the Causation of Intimal Hemorrhage and in the Precipitation of Coronary Thrombosis." Can Med Assoc j 44 (1941): 114.
51. Enstrom, J.E., L.E. Kanim, M.A. Klein. "Vitamin C Intake and Mortality among a Sample of the United States Population." Epidemiology 3:3 (1992): 194-202.
52. McCormick, W.J. "The Changing Incidence and Mortality of Infectious Disease in Relation to Changed Trends in Nutrition." Med Record (September 1947).
53. McCormick, W.J. "Ascorbic Acid as a Chemotherapeutic Agent." Arch Pediatr NY 69 (1952): 151-155. Available online at: http://www.doctoryour self.com/mccormick 1951.html.
54. Curhan, G.C., W.C. Willett, F.E. Speizer, et al. "Intake of Vitamins B6 and C and the Risk of Kidney Stones in Women." J Am Soc Nephrol 10:4 (1999): 840-845.
55. McCormick, W.J. "Lithogenesis and Hypovitaminosis." Med Record 159:7 (1946): 410-413.
56. McCormick, W.J. "Intervertebral Disc Lesions: A New Etiological Concept." Arch Pediatr NY 71 (1954): 29-33.
57. Salomon, L.L., and D.W. Stubbs. "Some Aspects of the Metabolism of Ascorbic Acid in Rats." Ann NY Acad Sci 92 (1961): 128-140. Conney, A.H., et at. "Metabolic Interactions between L-Ascorbic Acid and Drugs." Ann NY Acad Sci 92 (1961): 115-127.
58. Armour, J., K. Tyml, D. Lidington, et al. "Ascorbate Prevents Microvascular Dys-function in the Skeletal Muscle of the Septic Rat." J App! Physiol 90:3 (2001): 795-803.
59. Conney, A.H., C.A. Bray, C. Evans, et al. "Metabolic Interactions between L-Ascorbic Acid and Drugs." Ann NY Acad Sci 92 (1961): 115-127.
60. Pauling, L. "Evolution and the Need for Ascorbic Acid." Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 67 (1970): 1643-1648.
61. Hickey, S., and H. Roberts. Ridiculous Dietary Allowance. Lulu Press, 2005.

Kapitel 1: Ein bemerkenswertes Molekül

1. Carr, A.C., and B. Frei. "Toward a New Recommended Dietary Allowance for Vit-amin C Based on Antioxidant and Health Effects in Humans." Am J Clin Nutr 69:6 (1999): 1086-1107.

2. Simon, J.A., and E.S. Hudes. "Serum Ascorbic Acid and Gallbladder Disease Prevalence among U.S. Adults: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examina-tion Survey (NHANES III)." Arch Intern Med 160:7 (2000): 931-936.

3. Meister, A. "Glutathione-ascorhic Acid Antioxidant System in Animals." J Biol Chem 269:13 (1994): 9397-9400.

4. Meister, A. "On the Antioxidant Effects of Ascorbic Acid and Glutathione." Bio-chem Pharmacol 44 (1992): 1905-1915.

5. Martensson, J.M., J. Han, O.W. Griffith, et al. "Glutathione Ester Delays the Onset of Scurvy in Ascorbate-deficient Guinea Pigs." Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90 (1993): 317-321.

6. Montecinos, V., P. Guzman, V. Barra, et al. "Vitamin C is an Essential Antioxidant that Enhances Survival of Oxidatively Stressed Human Vascular Endothelial Cells in the Presence of a Vast Molar Excess of Glutathione." J Biol Chem 282:21 (2007): 15506-15515.

7. Cancer Research U.K. "U.K. Failing to Eat 5 a I)ay." Press release, September 21, 2007.

8. Gadshy, P. "The Inuit Paradox: How Can People Who Gorge on Fat and Rarely See a Vegetable Be Healthier than We Are?" Discover Magazine (January 10, 2004). Bell, R.A., E.J. Mayer-Davis, Y. Jackson, et al. "An Epidemiologic Review of Dietary Intake Studies among American Indians and Alaska Natives: Implications for Heart Disease and Cancer Risk." Ann Epidemiol 7:4 (1997): 229-240.

9. Hansen, J.C., H.S. Pedersen, G. Mulvad. "Fatty Acids and Antioxidants in the Inuit Diet. Their Role in Ischemic Heart Disease (IHD) and Possible Interactions with Oth-er Dietary Factors. A Review." Arctic Med Res 53:1 (1994): 4-17.

10. Lewis, H.W. Why Flip a Coin? New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1997.

11. Stone, I. "The Natural History of Ascorbic Acid in the Evolution of the Mammals and Primates and Its Significance for Present Day Man." Orthomolecular Psych 1:2-3 (1972): 82-89. Stone, 1. "Fifty Years of Research on Ascorhate and the Genetics of Scurvy." J Orthomolecular Psych 13:3 (1984). Available online at: www.orthomed.org/resources/papers/stnwnd.htm. Stone, I. "Studies of a Mammalian Enzyme System for Producing Evolutionary Evidence on Man." Am J Phys Anthro-pol 23 (1965): 83-86.

12. Pauling, L. "Evolution and the Need for Ascorbic Acid." Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 67 (1970): 1643-1648.

13. Pigolotti, S., A. Flammini, M. Marsili, et al. "Species Lifetime Distribution for Sim-ple Models of Ecologies." Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:44 (2005): 15747-15751. Newman, M.E.J., and R.G. Palmer. Modeling Extinction. New York, NY: Oxford Uni-versity Press, 2003.

14. Reich, D.E., and D.B. Goldstein. "Genetic Evidence for a Paleolithic Human Population Expansion in Africa." Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:14 (1998): 8119-8123.

15. Sykes, B. Seven Daughters of Eve: The Science That Reveals Our Genetic An-cestry. New York, NY: W.W. Norton, 2001. Fay, J.C, and C.I. Wu. "A Human Popula-tion Bottleneck Can Account for the Discordance between Patterns of Mitochondrial versus Nuclear DNA Variation." Mol Biol Evol 16:7 (1999): 1003-1005.

16. Cann, R.L., M. Stoneking, A.C. Wilson. "Mitochondrial DNA and Human Evolu-tion." Nature 325 (1987): 31-36.

17. Ambrose, S. "Did the Super-eruption of Toba Cause a Human Population Bot-tleneck? Reply to Gathorne-Hardy and Harcourt-Smith." J Hum Evol 45 (2003): 231-237. Ambrose, S. "Late Pleistocene Human Population Bottlenecks, Volcanic Win-ter, and the Differentiation of Modern Humans." J Hum Evol 34 (1998): 623-651.

18. Feng-Chi, C., and L. Wen-Hsiung. "Genomic Divergences between Humans and Other Hominoids and the Effective Population Size of the Common Ancestor of Humans and Chimpanzees." Am J Hum Genet 68:2 (2001): 444-456.

19. Gigerenzer, G. Calculated Risks. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster, 2002.

20. Surowiecki, J. The Wisdom of Crowds. New York, NY: Doubleday, 2004.

21. Hickey, S., and H. Roberts. Ascorbate: The Science of Vitamin C. Lulu Press, 2004.

22. Ibid.

23. Stephen, R., and T. Utecht. "Scurvy Identified in the Emergency Department: A Case Report." J Emerg Med 21:3 (2001): 235-237. Weinstein, M., P. Babyn, S. Zlot-kin. "An Orange a Day Keeps the Doctor Away: Scurvy in the Year." Pediatrics 108:3 (2001): E55.

24. Enstrom, J.E., L.E. Kanim, M.A. Klein. "Vitamin C Intake and Mortality among a Sample of the United States Population." Epidemiology 3:3 (1992): 194-202.

25. Enstrom, J.E. "Counterpoint-Vitamin C and Mortality." Nutr Today 28 (1993): 28-32.

26. Knekt, P., J. Ritz, M.A. Pereira, et al. "Antioxidant Vitamins and Coronary Heart Disease Risk: A Pooled Analysis of 9 Cohorts." Am J Clin Nutr 80:6 (2004): 1508-1520.

27. Osganian, S.K., M.J. Stampfer. E. Rimm, et al. "Vitamin C and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Women." J Am Coll Cardiol 42:2 (2003): 246-252.

28. Yokoyama, T., C. Date, Y. Kokubo, et al. "Serum Vitamin C Concentration was Inversely Associated with Subsequent 20-year Incidence of Stroke in a Japanese Rural Community: The Shibata Study." Stroke 31:10 (2000): 2287-2294.

29. Kushi, L.H., A.R. Folsom, R.J. Prineas, et al. "Dietary Antioxidant Vitamins and Death from Coronary Heart Disease in Postmenopausal Women." N Engl J Med 334:18 (1996): 1156-1162. Losonczy, K.G., T.B. Harris, R.J. Hav- lik. "Vitamin E and Vitamin C Supplement Use and Risk of All-cause and Coronary Heart Disease Mor-tality in Older Persons: The Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly." Am J Clin Nutr 64:2 (1996): 190-196.

30. Frei, B. "To C or Not to C, That is the Question!" J Am Coll Cardiol 42:2 (2003): 253-255.

31. Steinmetz, K.A., and J.D. Potter. "Vegetables, Fruit, and Cancer Prevention: A Review." J Am Diet Assoc 96:10 (1996): 1027-1039.

32. Kromhout, D. "Essential Micronutrients in Relation to Carcinogenesis." Am J Clin Nutr 45:5 Suppl (1987): 1361-1367.

33. Feiz, H.R., and S. Mobarhan. "Does Vitamin C Intake Slow the Progression of Gastric Cancer in Helicobacter pylori-infected Populations?" Nutr Rev 60:1 (2002): 34-36.

34. Michels, K.B., L. Holmberg, L. Bergkvist, et al. "Dietary Antioxidant Vitamins, Ret-inol, and Breast Cancer Incidence in a Cohort of Swedish Women." Intl J Cancer 91:4 (2001): 563-567.

35. Zhang, S., D.J. Hunter, M.R. Forman, et al. "Dietary Carotenoids and Vitamins A, C, and E and Risk of Breast Cancer." J Natl Cancer Inst 91:6 (1999): 547-556.

36. Hoffer, A. Adventures in Psychiatry: The Scientific Memoirs of Dr. Abram Hoffer. Caledon, Ontario, Canada: Kos Publishing, 2005.

37. Greensfelder, L. "Infectious Diseases: Polio Outbreak Raises Questions about Vaccine." Science 290:5498 (2000): 1867b-18696. Martin, J. "Vaccinederived Po-liovirus from Long-term Excretors and the End Game of Polio Eradication." Biologi-cals 34:2 (2006): 117-122.

38. Ermatinger, J.W. Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. Westport, CT: Green-wood Press, 2004.

39. Watanabe, C., and H. Satoh. "Evolution of Our Understanding of Methylmercury as a Health Threat." Environ Health Perspect 104:Suppl 2 (1996): 367-379. Mortada, W.L., M.A. Sobh, M.M. El-Defrawy, et al. "Mercury in Dental Restoration: Is There a Risk of Nephrotoxicity?" J Nephrol 15:2 (2002): 171-176.

40. Cheng, Y., W.C. Willett, J. Schwartz, et al. "Relation of Nutrition to Bone Lead and Blood Lead Levels in Middle-aged to Elderly Men, The Normative Aging Study." Am J Epidemiol 147:12 (1998): 1162-1174.

41. Simon, J.A., and E.S. Hudes. "Relationship of Ascorbic Acid to Blood Lead Lev-els." JAMA 281:24 (1999): 2289-2293.

42. Dawson, E.B., D.R. Evans, W.A. Harris, et al. "The Effect of Ascorbic Acid Sup-plementation on the Blood Lead Levels of Smokers." J Am Coll Nutr 18:2 (1999): 166-170.

43. Jacques, P.F. "The Potential Preventive Effects of Vitamins for Cataract and Age-related Macular Degeneration." Intl J Vitamin Nutr Res 69:3 (1999): 198-205.

44. Simon, J.A., and E.S. Hudes. "Serum Ascorbic Acid and Other Correlates of Self-reported Cataract among Older Americans." J Clin Epidemiol 52:12 (1999): 1207-1211.

45. Jacques, P.F., L.T. Chylack, S.E. Hankinson, et al. "Long-term Nutrient Intake and Early Age-related Nuclear Lens Opacities." Arch Ophthalmol 119:7 (2001): 1009-1019.

46. Age-Related Eye Disease Study Research Group. "A Randomized, Placebocon-trolled, Clinical Trial of High-dose Supplementation with Vitamins C and E and Beta Carotene for Age-related Cataract and Vision Loss: AREDS Report No. 9." Arch Ophthalmol 119:10 (2001): 1439-1452.

Chapter 3: Taking Vitamin C

1. Hickey, S., and H. Roberts. Ridiculous Dietary Allowance. Lulu Press, 2005.

2. Ibid.

3. Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals. "Review of Vitamin C." U.K. Government Update Paper EVM/99/21/P. London: Expert Group on Vitamins and Minerals, No-vember 1999.

4. McCormick, W.J. "Coronary Thrombosis: A New Concept of Mechanism and Etiol-ogy." Clin Med 4:7 (July 1957) 839-845.

5. Levine, M., C. Conry-Cantilena, Y. Wang, et al. "Vitamin C Pharmacokinetics in Healthy Volunteers: Evidence for a Recommended Dietary Allowance." Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93 (1996): 3704-3709. Standing Committee on Dietary Reference In-takes, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin F, Se-lenium, and Carotenoids: A Report of the Panel on Dietary Antioxidants and Related Compounds. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 2000. Levine, M., Y. Wang, S.J. Padayatty, et al. "A New Recommended Dietary Allowance of Vitamin C for Healthy Young Women." Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:17 (2001): 9842-9846.

6. Kallner, A., I. Hartmann, D. Hornig. "Steady-state Turnover and Body Pool of Ascorbic Acid in Man." Am J Clin Nutr 32 (1979): 530-539.

7. Baker, E.M., R.E. Hodges, J. Hood, et al. "Metabolism of Ascorbic-1-14C Acid in Experimental Human Scurvy." Am J Clin Nutr 22:5 (1969): 549-558.

8. Kallner, A., I. Hartmann, D. Hornig. "On the Absorption of Ascorbic Acid in Man." Intl J Vitamin Nutr Res 47 (1977): 383-388. Hornig, D.H., and U. Moser. "The Safety of High Vitamin C Intakes in Man." In Counsell, J.N., and D.H. Hornig (eds.). Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid). London: Applied Science Publishers, 1981, pp. 225-248.

9. Young, V.R. "Evidence for a Recommended Dietary Allowance for Vitamin C from Pharmacokinetics: A Comment and Analysis." Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93 (1996): 14344-14348. Ginter, E. "Current Views of the Optimum Dose of Vitamin C." Slo-vakofarma Rev XII (2002): 1, 4-8.

10. Hornig, D. "Distribution of Ascorbic Acid, Metabolites and Analogues in Man and Animals." Ann NY Acad Sci 258 (1975): 103-118. Moser, U. "The Uptake of Ascorbic Acid by Leukocytes." Ann NY Acad Sci 198 (1987): 200-215.

11. Watson, R.W.G "Redox Regulation of Neutrophil Apoptosis, Antioxidants and Redox Signalling." Forum Rev 4:1 (2002): 97-104. Kinnula, V.L., Y. Soini, K. Kvist-Makela, et al. "Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms in Human Neutrophils, Antioxi-dants and Redox Signalling." Forum Rev 4:1 (2002): 27-34.

12. Hickey, S., and H. Roberts. Ascorbate: The Science of Vitamin C. Lulu Press, 2004.

13. Washko, P., and M.J. Levine. "Inhibition of Ascorbic Acid Transport in Human Neutrophils by Glucose." Biol Chem 267:33 (1992): 23568-23574.

14. Santisteban, G.A., and J.T. Ely. "Glycemic Modulation of Tumor Tolerance in a Mouse Model of Breast Cancer." Biochem Biophys Res Commun 132:3 (1985): 1174-1179. Hamel, E.E., G.A. Santisteban, J.T. Ely, et al. "Hyperglycemia and Re-productive Defects in Non-diabetic Gravidas: A Mouse Model Test of a New Theory." Life Sci 39:16 (1986): 1425-1428. Ely, J.T. "Glycemic Modulation of Tumor Toler-ance." J Orthomolecular Med 11:1 (1996): 23-34. Fladeby, C., R. Skar, G. Serck-Hanssen. "Distinct Regulation of Glucose Transport and GLUT1/GLUT3 Transport-ers by Glucose Deprivation and IGF-I in Chromaffin Cells." Biochim Biophys Acta 1593:2-3 (2003): 201-208.

15. Daruwala, R., J. Song, W.S. Koh, et al. "Cloning and Functional Characteriza-tion of the Human Sodium-dependent Vitamin C Transporters hSVCTI and hSVCT2." FEBS Lett 460:3 (1999): 480-484. Tsukaguchi, H., T. Tokui, B. Mackenzie, et al. "A Family of Mammalian Na+-dependent L-Ascorbic Acid Transporters." Nature 399 (1999): 70-75.

16. Olson, A.L., and J.E. Pessin. "Structure, Function and Regulation of the Mam-malian Facilitative Glucose Transporter Gene Family." Annu Rev Nutr 16 (1996): 235-256. Mueckler, M. "Facilitative Glucose Transporters." Eur J Biochem 219 (1994): 713-725.

17. Cathcart, R.F. "Vitamin C: The Nontoxic, Nonrate-limited, Antioxidant Free Radi-cal Scavenger." Med Hypotheses 18 (1985): 61-77.

18. Douglas, R.M., H. Hemila, R. D'Souza, et al. "Vitamin C for Preventing and Treat-ing the Common Cold." Cochrane Database Syst Rev 18:4 (2004): CD000980.

19. Drisco, J. Data presented at the Nutritional Medicine Today Conference, Toronto, Canada, 2007.

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